Friday, September 4, 2020

Leukemia :: Cancer Research Health Essays

Leukemia Leukemia is a malady portrayed by the development of irregular quantities of white blood cells, for which no specific fix has been found. Leukemia is additionally conditions described by the change of typical blood-shaping cells into unusual white platelets whose over the top development overpowers and replaces typical bone marrow and platelets. Leukemias are named as per the ordinary cell from which they begin, for example, Lymphocyte Leukemia. Lymphocyte Leukemia is the place a Lymphocyte cell is changed into a Leukemia cell. Another case of Leukemia is Myelocytic or (Granulocytic Leukemia). This structures when a Myelocytic cell is changed or changed into a Leukemia cell. Diverse Leukemia's are situated in the magnifying instrument and by how much protein they contain. These Leukemia's are normally serious also, need treatment immediately. The present frequency of new cases every year in the United States is around 25 to each 100,000 people. The peril to the patient lies in the development of these irregular white cells, which meddle with the development of the red platelets, typical white blood cells, and the blood platelets. The uncontrolled development of the irregular white cells delivers a propensity to unstop dying, the danger of getting genuine contamination in the injuries, and an extremely little plausibility of block of the veins. Treatment of these Leukemias incorporate chemotherapy with alkylafing specialists, or antimetabodies that stifle the development of irregular white cells. Another treatment of a few kind would be the x-beam or the organization or radioactive substances, or radiophosphorus, may be utilized. After treatment these sicknesses may last for a long time. Age of the individual determined to have Leukemia has a significant impact in how that individual reacts to any treatment. The more established the individual the less reaction he may need to treatment. Leukemia in Animals white platelets is considerably less regular as Leukemia in people white platelets. The present treatment for the most part incorporates chemotherapy and additionally bone marrow transplantation steady consideration, where transfusions of blood segments and brief treatment of muddling contaminations, is significant. Ninety percent of youngsters with Acute Lymphocyte Leukemia have gotten chemotherapy and fifty percent of proposals kids have been completely restored of Leukemia. Treatment of AML or Acute Myeolcytic Leukemia isn't as effective yet has been improving increasingly more all through the 1990's. Researchers that review the reason for Leukemia have not had particularly achievement recently. Large portions of x-beams can expand the adequacy development of Leukemia. Synthetics, for example, Benzene additionally may build the danger of getting Leukemia. Researchers have given examinations a shot Leukemia in Animals by transmitting RNA into the body of the Animal. Understanding of these outcomes in connection with human Leukemia is mindful at this time. Studies have additionally recommended that family history, race, hereditary elements, and geology may

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Racial Profiling an Example of the Topic Government and Law Essays by

Racial Profiling Race profiling is characterized as the incorporation of race in the profile of an individual regarded liable to execute a specific wrongdoing or kind of wrongdoing. It is exemplified as any police or private security system into which an individual is viewed as a suspect as a result of their race, ethnicity, nationality or statement of faith. The incorporation of race as one of the various factors in speculate profiling is overall supported by the law implementation network inside the Western world. Race riots have likewise been refered to as a manifestation of racial profiling. It is contended that profiling based on any quality is a reliable and all inclusive police apparatus, and that precluding race as a factor is equivalent to being indiscreet. Need exposition test on Racial Profiling theme? We will compose a custom exposition test explicitly for you Continue Towards the last piece of the twentieth century in the United States however, the methodology got disliked with the overall population as misuses by law implementation were found. This happens as police explore, stop, search, look or apply power against an individual dependent on such qualities rather than confirmation of an individual's criminal operations. It every now and again involves the halting and scanning of ethnic minorities for petty criminal offenses, perceived as DWB or driving while dark or earthy colored. Though commonly related with African Americans and Latinos, racial profiling and DWB have likewise ended up being shorthand articulations for police stops of Asians, Native Americans, and, progressively after 9/11, Arabs, Muslims and South Asians ( Pampel, 2004). Racial profiling may mean person on foot stops, pack databases, bike quits, utilizing police assault hounds, doubt at stores and shopping centers, movement worksite invasions, and notwithstanding the 2000 presidential political decision in Florida, badgering while in transit to surveys, or casting a ballot while dark or earthy colored. Indeed, even Customs and some other air terminal work force likewise utilize racial profiling of suburbanites (Defosse, 2002). Some state that racial profiling is totally baseless, for example, profiling an African American individual due to their race. So the inquiry at the start will be Is racial profiling genuine? About all Americans accept so. In a July 2001 Gallup survey, it gives a record that 55 percent of whites and 83 percent of blacks think racial profiling is inescapable. Additionally, the reports of thousands of racial and ethnic gathering individuals over the state add believability to the evaluation that racial profiling is very much established. These are accounts from varying backgrounds, solid, productive ordinary individuals, however film and TV characters, proficient competitors, and individuals from the military. Also, reports of racial profiling originate from regarded individuals from networks of shading, for example, law authorization officers, examiners, judges, state officials, lawful agents, dental specialists and even delegates in Congress, who have been casualties (Weitzer and Tuch, 2006). A few quarters contend that racial profiling is in reality only another term for an old practice known by different names: institutional bigotry and segregation and owes its being to bias that has stayed in this nation since bondage. Pundits keep up that race should not the slightest bit be considered for any premise in a police experience; it ought not in the least be viewed as the major or rousing reason for doubt. It is on the grounds that its used to portray a particular suspect in a particular wrongdoing and just when utilized in a way like other physical portrayals (e.g., hair shading, weight, recognizing marks). In addition regardless of whether race could be profitable, utilization of race conceivably will prompt a lot more errors where the genuine transgressor happened not to fit the race anticipated by the example and law authorization neglects to catch the suspect. It is at times basic to respect racial factors in a manner that may not be legitimately evident from the above when managing detest violations and so forth, however it is uncommon to consider conditions where racial profiling would help police dynamic in this circumstance. This is regularly alluded to as the be keeping watch (BOLO) exemption. Various gatherings fight that if a disproportional number of individuals from a race are, for instance, halted, looked, or captured, contrasted with everyone or to different races, it is because of separation or imbalance. Furthermore, there are those that state that in the United States, the administration doesn't reserve the privilege to perform racial profiling. The Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution ties down the option to be shielded from outlandish pursuit and seizure without clear reason. Taking into account the way that the extensive mass of individuals of all races are honest residents, essentially being of a race which a cop considers to be bound to complete a wrongdoing than another isn't reasonable justification. Also, the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution forces that all US residents be managed similarly under the law. It is illegal for a delegate of the administration to make decisions based on race. This perception has been upheld by the US Supreme Court in Batson v. Kentucky and various different cases (Pampel, 2004). A few gatherings likewise contend that police who focus their restricted consideration on one racial gathering permit lawbreakers from other racial gatherings to go free. After the 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing, specialists depleted an unbalanced measure of time and assets on two men of Middle Eastern family line. It worked out that this fear based oppressor assault was completed by a white male; if the psychological oppressor had proposed more than one demonstration of savagery, the misuse of confined assets testing men of Middle Eastern plunge may perhaps have cost lives. In worker places like air terminals, racial profiling is from time to time used to single out who to examine more carefully and lengthily than every other person. In the event that an individual's physical highlights appear as though somebody of Middle Eastern birthplace, at that point they're regularly expected to be halted and looked systematically than somebody who has the physical highlights of an European person . It has likewise been shown that a great deal of Arabs and South Asians look somewhat like South (and sporadically even North) Europeans (Defosse, 2002). As indicated by certain supporters (Weitzer and Tuch 2006)., just the non-racial elements are justified in presume profiling; police should give no consideration to any ethnic or racial data they have on individuals made up for lost time in the illicit exchange. During a 2002 survey, for example, 73 percent of whites, 77 percent of Hispanics, and 91 percent of African Americans denounced of racial profiling by the police. Associations, for example, NAAP and the ACLU are ardently restricted to racial profiling. A lot of wrongdoings is executed by whites, they state, and profiling dependent on race singles out minorities, for example, African-Americans and people of Hispanic drop. They likewise banter the case that more wrongdoing is done by minorities, since, they state, it has been factually checked not to be the situation. In any case, in an assent order, the State Police affirmed to execute another strategy that no individual might be captured and held dependent on race, aside from said character relates with the sketch of a particular suspect. References Defosse, Jonathan R., Asian Americans, radical profiling, and national security, in: George Washington Law Review, 70 (2002), no. 1, pp. 181-211. Pampel, Fred C., Racial profiling, New York: Facts on File, c2004. 284 p.; 24 cm. Recovered from Ronald Weitzer and Steven Tuch. 2006. Race and Policing in America: Conflict and Reform (New York: Cambridge University Press).

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Barbara Jordan: The First African-American Woman State Senator

Jordan battled for the Texas House of Representatives in 1962 and 1964. [1] Her determination won her a seat in the Texas Senate in 1966, turning into the primary African American state congressperson since 1883 and the main dark lady to serve in that body. [1] Re-chose for a full term in the Texas Senate in 1968, she served until 1972. She was the primary African-American female to fill in as president ace tem. of the state senate and served one day, June 10, 1972, as acting legislative head of Texas.In 1972, she was chosen for the United States House of Representatives, turning into the principal dark lady from a Southern state to serve in the House. She got broad help from previous President Lyndon Johnson, who helped her safe a situation on the House Judiciary Committee. In 1974, she made a persuasive, broadcast discourse before the House Judiciary Committee supporting the prosecution of President Richard Nixon.Jordan was referenced as a potential running mate to Jimmy Carter in 1976,[1] and that year she turned into the main African-American lady to convey the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention. [1] Her discourse in New York that late spring was positioned fifth in â€Å"Top 100 American Speeches of the twentieth century† list and was considered by numerous antiquarians to have been the best show keynote discourse in current history. In spite of not being an applicant Jordan got one representative vote (0. 03%) for president at the convention.Jordan resigned from governmental issues in 1979 and turned into a subordinate teacher showing morals at the University of Texas at Austin Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs. She again was a keynote speaker at the Democratic National Convention in 1992. In 1995, Jordan led a Congressional commission that pushed expanded limitation of migration, required all U. S. occupants to convey a national personality card and expanded punishments on managers that abused U. S. migration guidelines . [2][3] Then-President Clinton embraced the Jordan Commission's proposition. 4] While she was Chair of the U. S. Commission on Immigration Reform she contended that â€Å"it is both a privilege and a duty of a vote based society to oversee migration with the goal that it serves the national intrigue. † Her position on migration is refered to by rivals of current US movement approach who refer to her eagerness to punish bosses who damage US movement guidelines, to fix fringe security, and to contradict absolution or some other pathway to citizenship for unlawful immigrants[5] and to expand the justification for the expulsion of legitimate settlers. [6]

Sleeplessness as a Cause of Obesity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Restlessness as a Cause of Obesity - Essay Example In spite of this examination, specialists are of the view that different puzzling elements are assuming their job in delineating the connection among restlessness and stoutness. Specialists are not persuaded that they have target motivations to have faith in the reason impact connection among restlessness and weight. By the by, it has commonly been seen that individuals that take a normal 8 hr night rest are very lesser in danger of getting stout than individuals who stay conscious. Past cases propose an opposite connection between the normal rest time and the corpulence rate. I for one believe that there is an immediate connection among restlessness and corpulence. The creator gave two motivations to accepting there is a backwards interface. In light of them, I present my own two reasons that propose that there is an immediate connection between the two. Right off the bat, when an individual stays alert instead of rest, he/she is continually applying either intellectually or truly or both. This effort brings down the vitality level and the put away vitality as fat is expended. There is minimal possibility that the individual would expend a full feast in the night like he/she does in the day on the grounds that the body isn't receptive to the utilization around evening time. Besides, when the digestion stays low for the remainder of the day following a restless night, an individual is probably going to expend lesser food than what he/she would devour in typical conditions. Both of these are solid prospects and both shield the person from putting on weight. Truth be told, I for one lost 3 kilos weight during last tests when I needed to stay alert throughout the night for a few evenings continuously. Having introduced my two reasons, I know why I lost those 3 kilos. I didn't eat anything during the evenings, and furthermore would not eat much in the next days. Steady mental effort in the evenings and lower digestion during the days would have helped me lose 3 kilos. The article caused me to feel great. In spite of the fact that I don’t completely accept the contention, yet it would be decent regardless of whether it is genuine on the grounds that I would not need to stay conscious to get thinner all things considered!

Friday, August 21, 2020

Why singapore failed to be a major trading centre?

Why singapore neglected to be a significant exchanging focus? â€Å"No student of history has yet enough disclosed why Singapore neglected to be a significant exchanging focus before the nineteenth century†. Pools Professor of History, Wong Lin Ken. a. Do new Dutch/Portuguese reports, maps and meager archeological proof going back past the nineteenth Century currently propose that Singapore was ALWAYS a key spot all things considered? Various confirmations had been revealed, and reports and archeological discoveries particularly, unquestionably recommend that Singapore was generally vital between the time of Temasek, in fourteenth century, and late seventeenth century. Be that as it may, to reason that Singapore was henceforth constantly vital would most likely be a lot of an exaggeration. This article will talk about Singapores vital importance, with the help of these confirmations, during the distinctive timespans. During the fourteenth century, exchange was at that point continuous between the West, South Asia and East Asia. The Melaka Straits was significant for dealers to sail back and forth the Indian Ocean toward the South China Sea. Cruising in the past relied upon wind bearing, in this manner ships needed to stop in Southeast Asia (SEA) to hang tight for an adjustment in wind course to bring them towards either China or India. Singapore was consequently a key port since she was situated in SEA and along Melaka Straits, making it an advantageous visit henceforth the focal of universal exchange. Bits of celadon (from China), Chinese coins, parts of stoneware (essentially from Guangdong and South Fujian) and earthernware (from Sumatra, Java and Borneo)and under-coated blue and white stem cup (increasingly costly of porcelains from Jingdezhen during Yuan Dynasty)recovered bolster the above case as they recommend broad exchange joins Temasek had with China and SEA, and that its occupants, par ticularly the wealthier ones occupying Fort Canning, had the option to bear the cost of the more impeccable results of Jingdezhen. Temasek at that point, had the option to draw in oceanic exchange by giving special items that adversary ports couldn't gracefully. Recorded by Wang Da Yuan in Daoyi zhilue,Temasek provided indigenous items like hornbills casques of superb quality. Discovered uniquely between north of Malay Peninsula and South of Borneo, brokers can just lay their hands on it at Temasek or Palembang. In spite of the fact that Lakawood was in plenitude, Temasek was one of the five ports that offer those of center quality. Celadon, white products and stonewares revealed at Riau Archipelago, going back to the time of Temasek, had examples and specialty like those imported from Temasek. Moreover, the cause of glassbeads of Riau Archipelago and Temasek ought to be indistinguishable given comparable organizations. Thus, Temasek presumably filled in as an assortment community and a section to send out for Riau Archipelago. For this situation, confirmations do recommend that Singapore was succeeding and had an impact on territorial economy and was accordingly vital. During the fifteenth to seventeenth hundreds of years, however Singapore declined somewhat when Temasek was moved to Melaka, pieces of under-coated blue porcelains found at Kallang River, and Portuguese maps which demonstrate the nearness of a shahbandars office, as explained in (b), recommend that she held a portion of its vital noteworthiness as a port by keeping up some exchange with China. As referenced, being one of the deliberately arranged along the Melaka Straits, the force that had the option to raise a vital strength around the waters around Singapore would be advantaged regarding security and financially. The Dutch had needed to crush Luso (Portuguese-Spanish) syndications in SEA when they initially began assaulting Portuguese exchanging ships around Singapore waters and pronounced war with the Portuguese when they struck Santa Catarina and sold its items. This saw the maritime fights between the Dutch and Johor Sultanate, and Portuguese and Acehnese in the mid seventeenth century and offered ascend to the contemplations of strengthening Singapore by the two forces. Jacques De Coutre proposed to fabricate fortresses at the east shore of Singapore and Muar River estuary and station a maritime armada at Sentosa to shield Portuguese exchanging ships from the Dutch. Dutch had similar places as a top priority for their fortress plans. Till this point, the Dutch and P ortuguese reports do recommend that Singapore was vital. Be that as it may, the plans never acknowledged, which made us reconsider if Singapore was actually that vital all things considered. Singapores key hugeness took a turn in the eighteenth century. There was very little proof to demonstrate this timeframe, yet by referencing to my logical information, we realize that the Dutch moved their concentration from the Melaka Straits to the Sunda Straits, Portuguese redirected their exchange to Japan experiencing issues exchanging the Melaka Straits and Johor Sultanate moved their funding to the Lingga Archipelago, moving the sea silk street southwards. Singapore lost its incentive with the declination of Melaka Straits and was relinquished. She not, at this point held any key noteworthiness to members of the oceanic exchange. Maybe it is definitely that very little proof was discovered that goes back to this timeframe that it recommends that exchanging exercises Singapore was kept to its base. In addition, no coins or porcelains were revealed that dates past the Song and Yuan Dynasty, and the Ming Dynasty separately, further supporting my relevant information. It is apparent that Singapores vital hugeness changes with time, contingent upon human-related factors, for example, governmental issues and financial matters, and subsequently is relative. The confirmations may appear to infer that Singapore was constantly key, yet when seen from another point, they can likewise recommend in any case as expressed in the past passage. Accordingly to state that they recommend that Singapore is constantly key might be excessively outrageous. b.In light of this proof, should Singapores history from 1511 to 1819 be composed as (1) minimal in excess of a sluggish angling town? (2) a declining yet at the same time flourishing emporium on the back of fervently challenged vital waters (3) some portion of the Johor Sultanate?Please clarify your inclination. From the fifteenth century to seventeenth century, Singapore was a (3) some portion of the Johor Sultanate, yet she was (2) a declining yet flourishing emporium with on leg on each side of fervently challenged vital waters between the sixteenth and seventeenth century. It was distinctly during the mid eighteenth century that exchange Singapore began plunging, and she was seen by the British as a tired angling town when they ventured aground in 1819. Henceforth, (1) minimal more than â€Å"a tired angling village† reasonably depicts Singapores history between this period as it is a more extensive title and therefore envelops both (2) and (3), and the decrease of significance of Singapores port coming about because of the declination of the Melaka Straits during the eighteenth century represents Singapore being â€Å"a tired angling village†. At the point when Singapore was (3), exchange was all the while progressing however unimportant contrasted with its Temasek period. Unearthings on the north bank of Singapore River, where a settlement was once present, and Kallang River uncovered pieces of pottery and under-coated blue porcelains with plans going back to the standard of Ming Emperor Wanli (1573 to 1620). Comparable discoveries in Johor Lama and Johor Shoal infer that the discoveries in Singapore had a place with the Johor River exchange constrained by the Johor Sultans. Some may recommend that these pieces may have been arranged into the Kallang River when ships visit for provisions since they broke during the journey, and not in light of exchange present Singapore. This might be valid, nonetheless, as indicated by two Portuguese maps, a shahbandar of the Johor Sultans office was included on the southern shore of Singapore, refuting the above guess and demonstrating that exchange at the Kallang River was thriving to the degree it required a shahbandar to run it. This likewise demonstrates Singapore at that point, was proceeding with some level of exchange with China, indicating that she was (1). As referenced, exchange was additionally falling, contrasted with its Temasek period, as during this time, Melaka was the principle port for worldwide exchange. Singapore at that point, upheld Melaka by giving products from herself to Melaka to send out. A model being blackwood, which was brought from Singapore to Melaka, and afterward purchased in mass by Chinese brokers. (2) may now appear to be conceivable now in the paper since Singapore was a declining yet flourishing emporium, and proof show that its waters are fervently challenged for between the Dutch and Johor Sultanate, and the Portuguese and Acehnese, and Singapore was seen by both as vital to assemble a fortification to accomplish their individual points as referenced in (a). In any case, one may wish to take note of that Singapores waters may not be that vital all things considered. In 1613, Aceh effectively assaulted Batu Sawar as she was disturbed about the marking of the harmony settlement between Johor Sultanate and Portuguese, revealing the helpless situation of Singapore waters, rendering it not, at this point key. Besides, when Melaka Straits lost its significance to Sunda Straits in the late seventeenth century, Singapore was dismissed and declined over the eighteenth century. Its waters were not, at this point challenged and the issue on it being key or not got unimportant. A town of Orang Lauts and Malays, not being quite a bit of an arrangement, were all that were left in Singapore. Melaka Straits was loaded up with privateers and Singapore, lying on the Straits, was consequently observed as a lethargic angling town by the British when they arrived in the nineteenth century. (2) doesn't consider these happenings, subsequently it is imperfect i n portraying Singapores history. All in all, (1) best portrays Singapore history as it suits the period when Singapore might have been (3), when exchange was dynamic however declining, the period when it was viewed as vital and its waters challenged by the Dutch and Portuguese, up to the period when British established Singapore as a lethargic fi

Thursday, August 6, 2020

Whats in an App Personal Statement COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Whats in an App Personal Statement COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Your SIPA personal statement may initially get only minutes of an admissions officers attention. In those few minutes, you will want to show that you are a great pick. Writing an amazing SIPA Personal Statement  is probably far more straightforward than you might think. SIPA admissions officers arent looking for gimmicks. Theyre looking for passionate, motivated, and prepared applicants who are ready to hit the ground running in their chosen program. Read on for more details in creating your best personal essay. Personal, personal, personal Did we mention personal? Your personal statement should be about your interests as an individual. Write about issues only if they relate specifically to your personal experiences. For example, In Africa, a child dies every minute. This stark statistic prompted me to join an NGO aimed at providing nutrition and healthcare for children in Namibia. Be yourself! It can be tempting to want to embellish your essays with language or quotes that show off your knowledge, don’t overthink it! The admissions committee wants to know about you and how SIPA can get you where you want to go. You chose SIPA for a reason, so just elaborate on that reason in your essay. Know your program and make connections Securing acceptance is more about being the best match than about being the most highly qualified. Among applicants who meet the programs minimum requirements, theyll choose an enthusiastic and informed applicant over one with higher test scores and a better GPA who doesnt seem to know much about their program. Ask for help Most students at SIPA will tell you that they’ve had close friends or mentors offer a second set of eyes on their personal statement. While we are all independent adults forging our own paths, sometimes we need to reach out for some help or advice. Whether it is using friends and family as sounding boards to bounce ideas off of, or to proofread your essay after you write it, asking for help can take some of the stress out of writing an admissions essay. Having another set of eyes look at your essay can make sure mistakes are caught before you submit. They can also provide feedback about weak areas in your essay, or even point out something you didn’t know about yourself that would make you a strong candidate. Take a step back Sometimes just stepping away from your essay for a little while may help, if you have the time. Sitting down and focusing on it for hours may cause you to miss the goal altogether. So step away, reward yourself for your work thus far, and return to it at a better time. Now that you’re armed with these personal essay pointers, put them into practice and wow some admission officers. Happy writing!

Monday, June 22, 2020

Supreme Court Prediction Paper - Free Essay Example

Often times lawbreakers enjoy arguing to justify a crime they committed by saying that they do not remember such a thing happening. In some cases, their argument is valid, but in most cases it is a pitiful excuse to stall punishment. This legal issue was raised in the Supreme Court case, Vernon Madison v. State of Alabama, where a man sits on Alabamas death row after killing a police officer. The issue questions whether or not Vernon Madisons eighth amendment right is being violated. To consult this matter, both parties and Judges from the circuit and trial courts used the Ford and Panetti standard to analyze this case. The Ford and Panetti standard refers to two separate precedent cases that involved similar circumstances. To better understand the Ford and Panetti standard, it is important to understand the importance of the outcomes from both cases. In the Ford case decided in 1986, a Florida court sentenced Alvin Bernard Ford to death for first-degree murder. From the time of the murder, trial and sentencing phase, Ford was not suffering from any mental defects. After he was sentenced to death, his mental health deteriorated. After much litigation, in a 7-2 decision, the Supreme Court held that English common law found executing the insane savage and inhumane. In the Panetti case, Scott Louis Panetti was convicted of first-degree murder and was sentenced to death. In a psychiatric evaluation, it was found that Panetti was aware of his crime and because of that the district court found him sufficiently sane to be executed. The U.S. Court of Appeals affirmed this decision, but the U.S. Supreme Cour t disagreed. In a 5-4 decision, the Court held that the Fifth circuits analysis of Panettis mental condition was treated as irrelevant as long as he was somewhat aware of the states reasoning of putting him to death. The court also stated that the state unreasonably applied Ford by failing to give Panetti a fair chance to present his psychiatric evidence. With this, the court expressed that they hoped that future expert psychiatric evidence would magnify which delusions might distort an inmates sense of reality so much as to render him incompetent to be executed. Initially, the state of Alabama ruled against Madison stating that the defendant did not make a threshold showing insanity. Meaning Madison failed to show that he is delusional. The U.S. Court of Appeals reversed holding that when dementia is accepted as a relevant basis for incompetency, hes clearly incompetent. In oral argument, the petitioner argues before the Supreme Court that someone who has a disability that renders them inept to the time, place, or rationally understanding the circumstances of their offense, then they are incompetent; backed by proven medical records and accounts of past situations. They present to the court that the state was unwilling to consider any evidence about mental state that was outside of the scope of insanity, delusion, or psychosis. The petitioner wants the Supreme Court to affirm the U.S. Court of Appeal, while the respondent wants to carry out their death sentence arguing that Madison is aware and competent enough to be put to death. The three Justices behavior that will be examined in order to predict if they will vote to affirm or reverse are Chief Justice John Roberts, Justice Samuel Alito, and Justice Stephen Breyer. With all the given information, Chief Justice Roberts will likely vote to affirm the U.S. Court of Appeals decision to reverse Madisons death penalty based on a few reasons. It was interesting to observe Chief Justice Roberts behavior during oral arguments as he immediately disrupted the petitioner to try and grasp a firm understanding of what was being argued. In the very beginning of oral arguments, he had no problem admitting that he was having a tough time understanding what the issue was. This led him to constantly interrupting and questioning to clarify what the petitioner was trying say. Concurrently, other associate justices grilled the petitioner and eventually Chief Justice Roberts fell back and did not say anything else until it was time to hear the respondents argument. It is commonly understood by researchers that when a justice continues to interrupt someone that they are likely to vote against that side, and this was not the case in this occasion. Chief Justice Roberts showed less interest while Thomas R. Govan, on behalf of the respondent, argued the states side of the case. There was a point when the Chief Justice implied that he understood what the respondent was saying when Govan explained how an MRI can show mental illness, but not rational understanding. This implied that Roberts, for the most part, comprehended at least partially of the states argument. Towards the end Roberts seemed to agree with some of his fellow justices when they were questioning Govan. Since Justice Anthony Kennedy, who was considered at the courts swing voter is gone, there has not been anyone to replace and acquire this title, but it looks like Roberts will vote liberal on this issue, because if not, the court may dead lock 4-4 resulting in Madisons death. The matter does not involve the executive or congress, and for that matter, Roberts would deliberately make sure of it because according to an interview Roberts did a while back he said, The justices speak for th e constitution.while elected officials work for the people. This comment implies that Roberts top priority is to serve justice according to the constitution. It also proves that he is deferential to precedent. He asked Govan, So are all we arguing about whether Mr. Madison himself meets the Ford and Panetti standard? He proved this when he effectively shortened Madison down to a simple application of precedent. The Ford and Panetti standard says that incompetent people cannot be executed. According to his behavior, it appears that his behavior is predominately motivated by legal principles much like legal model, because in this case, if he were motivated by anything else his vote would likely be conservative. On the other hand, Justice Samuel Alito made it very clear that he will vote to reverse the U.S. Court of Appeals, allowing Madison to be put to death. While other liberal justices focused on the issue of Madisons general state of competency, Justice Alito focused on one aspect that was irrelevant to most justices which was the amnesia issue mentioned during oral arguments. His questioning focused on a very narrow topic and seemed as if he was misunderstanding Stephensons argument on behalf of the petitioner throughout his entire open arguments. Justice Alito said, I dont understand youre answer. I cant think of a situation in which a person would lack memory of the commission of the offense without that being based on a mental condition. This comment very well represents Justice Alitos misunderstanding of the petitioners point. It was evident that Justice Alitos focus was off when other liberals would interrupt by stringing the focus back to what was actually being argued; Since med ical records prove that Madison is not able to understand the things around him due to dementia, he is incompetent to be executed. They would not allow Alito to relabel the case as one about amnesia rather than insanity. Justice Alitos support to execute Madison comes by no surprise considering his notorious history of urging such behavior. In Glossip v. Gross, an earlier case involving the issue of whether a particular drug that Oklahoma wants to use in executions adequately reduces inmates pain that the intense suffering caused does not amount to cruel and unusual punishment, Justice Alito delivered the opinion of the court and had an unsympathetic choice of words when doing so. He included, .because it is settled that capital punishment is constitutional, it necessarily follows that there must be a constitutional means of carrying it out.we have held that the constitution does not require the avoidance of all risk of pain. This shows that Justice Alito has been in favor of capital punishment before and based on these comments, there would have to be convincingly enough evidence to sway him the other way. Going into Madisons case, Justice Alito appears to have had a preconception based on precedent cases before this one. With this, it would be extremely hard to convince him that Madison ought to not be put to death regardless of his vascular dementia that is deteriorating his memory. This elutes to the belief that his voting behavior is motivated solely by his partisanship under the attitudinal model that posits a justice will pursue their sincere preferences. Justice Stephen Breyer will vote to affirm the U.S. Court of Appeals, which will save Madisons life. Justice Breyer has a history in dissenting in conservative ruled cases involving the 8th amendment and death penalty cases. Just like Justice Alito, Breyer voted in the Glossip v. Gross cases, but instead, he was one of which who voted against and dissented. This prior voting history gave insight as to how Breyer would look at Madisons case. Breyer interrupted Govan many times which indicated that he was not agreeing with much of Govans argument. He especially did not agree with the Govans point that he believed Madisons real claim was that dementia should exempt him from execution. He cut Govan off at one point and said, He does not recall his crime.and he has a severe inability to orient himself to time and place. He was insinuating that Madison would of course not be able to be saved under just the claim of amnesia, but under Ford and Panetti, he should be let off the hook since th is standard says that incompetent people can not be executed. Although it is hard to say, Justice Breyer will most likely vote based on the attitudinal model, because in oral arguments he was more concerned with Madisons condition rather than precedent. Out of these 3 justices, Roberts seems to be the essential vote that may swing the outcome either way. If he decides to vote liberal to save Madisons life, the decision will likely be 5-3 with of course conservatives dissenting including Justice Alito.